An island in the Indian Ocean northeast of South Africa is no less than any alien world on this earth. The country of Yemen rules this island. It is situated between the Arabian Sea and the Guardafui Channel. The name of this island is Socotra. Looking at the trees and plants on the island, it seems that there is a fictional world shown in a Hollywood movie.
There are four islands in the Socotra Archipelago. Socotra, Abd Al Kuri, Samhah and Darsah. The area of the island of Socotra is 3796 square kilometres. It is about 132 km long and 50 km wide. The highest mountain here is Mashanig. Whose height is 4931 feet? Its capital is Hadibu.
Altogether 60 thousand people live on the four islands, including Socotra. Only 11.3 people live on every square kilometre. That is, the population of people is less according to the area. In 2008, the Socotra island was recognised as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Because the trees and plants here make it an alien world. Most of the Sokotri people live here. But the population of South Arabic people is also fine.
Socotra Island is one of the few people on earth. In ancient times it was part of the Gondwana continent. Gradually separating from Africa, it stopped after going a little far. Apart from the four islands, there are two small rocky islands, which are not inhabited by humans but sea birds.
There are three types of land here – a first coastal plain, second limestone plateau and third Hazhir mountain. The height of the mountains is 4931 feet. Most of the temperature here remains warm. The climate is desert. The average temperature of the year is 25 °C. There is less rainfall in the year. But whenever it happens, it spreads. Here the monsoon comes from the northeast. The rainy month is from October to December. The maximum rainfall is 31.50 inches every year.
The seafarers coming out of Gujarat earlier still call Socotra Sikotro Singh, i.e. Lion of Socotra. This is because it constantly collides with the lion with the strong waves of the sea. Despite being located near the Arabian Sea and having a warm climate, this island is called a bio-diversity stronghold. It was visited by a United Nations biologist in 1990. So that the study of trees and plants can be done here. Here trees and plants are the main attraction. They surprise.
There are more than 700 species of plants on Socotra Island, which are not found anywhere else. Such a strange sight is seen around New Zealand, Hawaii and New Caledonia. But very little. Due to excessive heat and drought, the trees and plants here have taken a different form. It seems that there are plants and trees brought from some alien world. The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh conducted a survey; then, it was found that out of 825 plant species on this island, 307 are found only here.
The IUCN Red List also examined Socotra Island’s flowers and plants. It was found that there are three plants here which are on the verge of severe extinction. At the same time, 27 species of plants may become extinct. The most surprising plant on this island is the Dragon Blood Tree. This umbrella-shaped tree surprises the whole world. A red-coloured liquid emerges from it, which people used to dye earlier. Now it is used for painting and varnishing.
Other trees on the island of Socotra that surprises us are- Giant Succulent Tree, Cucumber Tree, Rare Socotran Pineapple, Aloe Peri etc. Not only this, there are such animals on this island, which are found only in this. Birds like Socotra Starling, Socotra Sunbird, Socotra Bunting, Socotra Cysticola, Socotra Sparrow, Socotra Golden Winged Grosbeak. One species of mammal, and six species of birds, are found locally here.
There are 31 species of reptiles, i.e. lizards and snakes, on the island of Socotra. All these species are local. Here such a lizard is found, which does not have legs. The Blue Baboon Tarantula Spider is found here. Three species of transparent water crabs exist. Humans have been living on this island for 2000 years.